Published 1973 .
Written in EnglishRead online
|Statement||by William E. Whitehead.|
|LC Classifications||Microfilm 50844 (R)|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||vi, 62 leaves|
|Number of Pages||62|
|LC Control Number||89893266|
Download Operant conditioning of gastric acid secretion in humans
In an attempt to control gastric acid secretion with operant‐conditioning techniques, four normal women were given visual feedback on gastric pH plus money reinforcers. When money was made dependent on increased secretion in a differential‐reinforcement‐of‐high‐rates schedule, the rate of secretion of three of the four subjects Cited by: Modification of human gastric acid secretion with operant-conditioning procedures.
Whitehead WE, Renault PF, Goldiamond I. In an attempt to control gastric acid secretion with operant-conditioning techniques, four normal women were given visual feedback on gastric pH plus money by: In an attempt to control gastric acid secretion with operant-conditioning techniques, four normal women were given visual feedback on gastric pH plus money reinforcers.
When money was made dependent on increased secretion in a differential-reinforcement-of-high-rates schedule, the rate of secretion Cited by: In an attempt to control gastric acid secretion with operant-conditioning techniques, four normal women were given visual feedback on gastric pH plus money reinforcers.
When money was made dependent on increased secretion in a differential-reinforcement-of-high-rates schedule, the rate of secretion of three of the four subjects increased to. negative effect on gastric acid secretion, the mechanismforwhichis notclear.
Studies on the effect of enteral infusion of ethanol have produced strikingly different results (Table I). Early studies by Cooke>" showedthat ethanol in concentrations of 1%to 20% did not stimulate gastric acid secretion.
Lenzetal' usedintragastric titration tomeasureCited by: Birnbaum, D., Karmeli, F., & Tefera, M. The effects of diazepam on human gastric secretion. Gut,12, – PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar.
Connell, A., & Waters, T. Assessment of gastric function by pH telemetering capsule. Short term and long term conditioning of gastric acid secretions. Paper presented at the 1st. In study I subjects had two sessions-one to examine the effects of reading and another to study the effects of relaxation exercises.
An incomplete crossover design was used. Subjects (N=13) decreased mean acid output by % while reading and % after relaxation exercises (N=14). In study II, six subjects each had one session to examine the effects on acid output of a difficult maze-solving. THE mammalian stomach is a specialized organ of the digestive tract that serves to store and process food for absorption by the intestine.1 One of its features, considered to be the hallmark of gas.
Inhibition of gastric acid secretion will also reduce the volume of the stomach's contents. Operant conditioning of gastric acid secretion in humans book Anti-muscarinic agents block acetylcholine (ACh) release from vagal postganglionic fibres and reduce gastric acidity.
However, they are not used in practice because they also reduce LOS tone and delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the risk of. Nonetheless, excessive secretion of gastric acid is a major problem in human and, to a lesser extent, animal populations, leading to gastritis, gastric ulcers and peptic acid disease.
As a consequence, the parietal cell and the mechanisms it uses to secrete acid have been studied extensively, leading to development of several drugs Operant conditioning of gastric acid secretion in humans book for. Define cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases of the secretory response; Describe how secretion is terminated once the meal has left the stomach; Define the cellular basis for acid secretion and the morphologic changes that take place in parietal cells to achieve this; Identify clinical correlates of abnormal acid secretion + +.
Recent milestones in the understanding of gastric acid secretion and treatment of acid-peptic disorders include the (1) discovery of histamine H2-receptors and development of histamine H2-receptor antagonists, (2) identification of H+K+-ATPase as the parietal cell proton pump and development of proton pump inhibitors, and (3) identification of Helicobacter pylori as the major cause of duodenal.
It, furthermore, lifts the inhibition of gastrin and gastric acid secretion. This stimulates G cells to release gastrin, which stimulates parietal cells to secrete gastric acid.
This causes a continued secretion of hcl (hydrochloric acid) and pepsin, which lowers the pH to one to three (acidic). Intestinal Phase. Partially digested food fills.
Human digestive system - Human digestive system - Gastric secretion: The gastric mucosa secretes to litres of gastric juice per day. Gastric juice renders food particles soluble, initiates digestion (particularly of proteins), and converts the gastric contents to a semiliquid mass called chyme, thus preparing it for further digestion in the small intestine.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is a chronic disease characterized by the recurrent ascension of some of the gastric contents in the esophagus. Indeed, gastric acid secreted by parietal cells and the gastric pepsin activity, but not the intestinal alkaline content, are the most important pathogenic factors of GER.
Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved, the most important. RENAULT P. and GOLDIAMOND I. () Modification of human gastric acid secretion with operant-conditioning procedures. appl. Behav.
Analysis 8(2). Medchrome Blog: Medchrome Answers: Medchrome Videos: Medchrome Images: http://ima. A wide range of secretory (salivation, gastric acid and bile secretion) and motor functions (rumination, esophageal and anal sphincter contraction, gastric and colonic motility) have been successfully modified using operant conditioning procedures or biofeedback training.
The clinical syndromes to w. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 1.
Psychosom Med. Sep-Oct;36(5) Learned control of gastric acid secretions in ulcer patients. Welgan PR. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. For example, in addition to salivation, CSs (such as the bell) that signal that food is near also elicit the secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, and insulin (which gets blood glucose into cells).
All of these responses prepare the body for digestion. Additionally, the CS elicits approach behavior and a state of excitement.
The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ.
In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following performs a chemical breakdown by means of enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
The role of gastric acid in digestion was established in the s and s by William Beaumont on Alexis St. Martin, who, as a result of an accident, had a fistula (hole) in his stomach, which allowed Beaumont to observe the process of digestion and to extract gastric acid, verifying that acid played a crucial role in digestion.
Gastric ulcers may respond to the same regimen continued for 8 to 12 weeks, but because nocturnal acid secretion is less important, morning administration may be equally or more effective.
Children ≥ 40 kg may receive adult doses. Below that weight, the oral dosage is cimetidine 10 mg/kg every 12 hours. For GERD, H2 blockers are now mostly. Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed within the stomach ed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride, gastric acid plays a key role in digestion of proteins by activating digestive enzymes, which together break down the long chains of amino acids of c acid is regulated in feedback systems to increase.
Relation of specific psychological characteristics to rate of gastric secretion (serum pepsinogen). Psychosomatic Medicine, 19, 1 – Weiss, J. () Effects of coping behaviour on different warning signal conditions on stress pathology in rats. From this perspective the use of agents to reduce hydrochloric acid (HCl) secretion makes perfect sense.
However there is another model that suggests that over 90% of GERD related symptoms are related to too little HCl. Therefore the use of agents to further reduce your stomach acid makes absolutely no sense AND may cause serious problems.
Ivan Pavlov defined the “psychic phase” of gastric acid secretion by demonstrating that the sight, smell, and anticipation of eating were potent stimulants of acid secretion. From: Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology, Related terms: Physiology; Physiologists; Cognition; Classical Conditioning; Operant Conditioning; Digestion; Odors.
Basic principles of learning are always operating and always influencing human behavior. This module discusses the two most fundamental forms of learning -- classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning. Through them, we respectively learn to associate 1) stimuli in the environment, or 2) our own behaviors, with significant events, such as rewards and punishments.
The two. Human digestive system - Human digestive system - Intestinal gas: The movement of gas through the intestines produces the gurgling sounds known as borborygmi.
In the resting state there are usually about ml of gas in the gastrointestinal tract. Its composition varies: between 20 and 90 percent is nitrogen, up to 10 percent is oxygen, up to 50 percent is hydrogen, up to 10 percent is.
gastric acid secretion. A&P 2, lesson 6 Cells that play a central role in the control of the rate of acid secretion.
human gastrin-releasing peptide. The peptide hormone bombesin. enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells) A peptide hormone (also known as human gastrin-releasing peptide).
chyme. A thick suspension of ingested food from the. The ECL cell is now believed to play a crucial part in the regulation of gastric-acid secretion.
The target cell for gastrin seems to be the ECL cell—not the parietal cell. Gastrin therefore acts to stimulate gastric-acid secretion indirectly through gastrin-induced ECL-cell histamine release; histamine then stimulates the parietal cell's H2.
Regulation of secretion of gastric acid - Duration: Physiology Open 1, views. Regulation of Acid Production Through Parasympathetic Nervous System in Hindi.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an important gastric secretion that enables the body to break down proteins, activate important enzymes and hormones, and protect against bacterial overgrowth in the gut.
Achlorhydria (the complete absence of stomach acid) and hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid) are common digestive problems. Symptoms of low stomach. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 9. Effects of feedback and reinforcement on the control of human systolic blood pressure.
ScienceGorman PJ, Kamiya J: Operant conditioning of stomach acid pH. Read before the Biofeedback. Secondly, gastric acid secretion by the parietal cell is stimulated by parasympathetic activity. Just the smell of food, thinking of food, seeing food, will activate the proton pump.
This increase in parasympathetic activity also increases the amount of Gastrin. Several stimuli act to prevent over-secretion of stomach acid which can be damaging both to the stomach as well as the duodenum (following gastric emptying).
Many of the inhibitory stimuli originate in the early small intestine (i.e. duodenum and jejunum) and act to inhibit secretion of stomach acid.
-in addition to salivation, when there is a controlled stimulus that signals food, it elicits the secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, and insulin -prepare the body for digesting -conditioned stimulus also lead to a state of excitement [hearing a bag of chips open can lead to you feeling hungry].
Whitehead WE, Renault PF, Goldiamond I. Modification of human gastric acid secretion with operant-conditioning procedures. J Appl Behav Anal ; Whitehead WE, Drescher VM. Perception of gastric contractions and self-control of gastric motility. Psychophysiology ; Imre Laszlo Szabo, Jozsef Czimmer, Janos Szolcsanyi and Gyula Mozsik, “Molecular Pharmacological Approaches to Effects of Capsaicinoids and of Classical Antisecretory Drugs on Gastric Basal Acid Secretion and on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage in Human Healthy Subjects (Mini Review)”, Current Pharmaceutical Design ().
Gastric acid aids digestion by creating the optimal pH for pepsin and gastric lipase and by stimulating pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. Acid secretion is initiated by food: the thought, smell, or taste of food effects vagal stimulation of the gastrin-secreting G cells located in the distal one third (antrum) of the stomach.Background: Despite the widespread use of over-the-counter H2-receptor antagonists little is known about their duration of action on human gastric acid secretion.
There are studies reporting. The stomach contains many things, but what we’re interested in for the scope of this article is the gastric acid.
Also referred to as stomach acid and gastric juice, it’s basically a digestive fluid – comprising hydrochloric acid (around 5, – 10, parts per million), sodium chloride and potassium chloride – that forms inside the.